# Technicals

The Technicals Module contains 30+ Technical Indicators that can be used to analyse companies. These ratios are divided into 4 categories which are breadth, momentum, overlap and volatility. Each indicator is calculated using the data from the Toolkit module.

To install the FinanceToolkit it simply requires the following:

If you are looking for documentation regarding the toolkit, discovery, ratios, models, fixed income, risk, performance and economics, please have a look below:

**init**

Initializes the Technicals Controller Class.

**Args:**

__tickers (str | list[str]):__The tickers to use for the calculation.__intraday_historical (pd.DataFrame, optional):__The intraday historical data to use for the calculation. Defaults to pd.DataFrame().__daily_historical (pd.DataFrame, optional):__The daily historical data to use for the calculation. Defaults to pd.DataFrame().__weekly_historical (pd.DataFrame, optional):__The weekly historical data to use for the calculation. Defaults to pd.DataFrame().__monthly_historical (pd.DataFrame, optional):__The monthly historical data to use for the calculation. Defaults to pd.DataFrame().__quarterly_historical (pd.DataFrame, optional):__The quarterly historical data to use for the calculation. Defaults to pd.DataFrame().__yearly_historical (pd.DataFrame, optional):__The yearly historical data to use for the calculation. Defaults to pd.DataFrame().__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__start_date (str | None, optional):__The start date to use for the calculation. Defaults to None.__end_date (str | None, optional):__The end date to use for the calculation. Defaults to None.

As an example:

Which returns:

Date | AAPL | MSFT |
---|---|---|

2023-08-21 | 62.8842 | 36.7468 |

2023-08-22 | 65.7063 | 36.5525 |

2023-08-23 | 67.3596 | 35.5149 |

2023-08-24 | 66.4527 | 35.4399 |

2023-08-25 | 63.4837 | 32.3323 |

## collect_all_indicators

Calculates all Technical Indicators based on the data provided.

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The period to use for the calculation. Defaults to “daily”.__window (int, optional):__The number of days to use for the calculation. Defaults to 14.__close_column (str, optional):__The column to use for the calculation. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__rounding (int, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the ratios. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Technical indicators calculated based on the specified parameters.

**Notes:**

- The method calculates various types of technical indicators for each asset in the Toolkit instance.
- If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## collect_breadth_indicators

Calculates and collects various breadth indicators based on the provided data.

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The name of the column containing the close prices. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Breadth indicators calculated based on the specified parameters.

**Notes:**

- The method calculates various breadth indicators for each asset in the Toolkit instance.
- If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_mcclellan_oscillator

Calculate the McClellan Oscillator for a given price series.

The McClellan Oscillator is a breadth indicator that measures the difference between the exponential moving average of advancing stocks and the exponential moving average of declining stocks.

The formula is a follows:

- McClellan Oscillator = EMA(Advancers) - EMA(Decliners)

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The name of the column containing the close prices. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__short_ema_window (int, optional):__The window size for the short-term EMA. Defaults to 19.__long_ema_window (int, optional):__The window size for the long-term EMA. Defaults to 39.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: McClellan Oscillator values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the McClellan Oscillator for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_advancers_decliners

Calculate the Advancers/Decliners ratio for a given price series.

The Advancers/Decliners ratio is a breadth indicator that measures the number of advancing stocks (stocks with positive price changes) versus the number of declining stocks (stocks with negative price changes).

The formula is a follows:

- Advancers/Decliners = Advancers / Decliners

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The name of the column containing the close prices. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Advancers/Decliners ratio values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the Advancers/Decliners ratio for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_on_balance_volume

Calculate the On -Balance Volume (OBV) for a given price series.

The On -Balance Volume (OBV) is a technical indicator that uses volume flow to predict changes in stock price. It accumulates the volume on up days and subtracts the volume on down days. The resulting OBV line provides insights into the buying and selling pressure behind price movements.

The formula is a follows:

- OBV = Previous OBV + Current Volume if Close > Previous Close

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column name for closing prices in the historical data. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the OBV. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: On-Balance Volume values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates On-Balance Volume for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the OBV using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_accumulation_distribution_line

Calculate the Accumulation/Distribution Line for a given price series.

The Accumulation/Distribution Line is a technical indicator that evaluates the flow of money into or out of an asset. It takes into account both price and volume information to identify whether an asset is being accumulated (bought) or distributed (sold) by investors.

The formula is a follows:

- ADL = Previous ADL + Current ADL

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column name for closing prices in the historical data. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the Accumulation/Distribution Line. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Accumulation/Distribution Line values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the Accumulation/Distribution Line for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the Accumulation/Distribution Line using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_chaikin_oscillator

Calculate the Chaikin Oscillator for a given price series.

The Chaikin Oscillator is a momentum -based indicator that combines price and volume to help identify potential trends and reversals in the market. It is calculated as the difference between the 3 -day and 10 -day Accumulation/Distribution Line.

The formula is a follows:

- Chaikin Oscillator = EMA(short -window ADL) - EMA(long -window ADL)

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column name for closing prices in the historical data. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__short_window (int, optional):__Number of periods for the short-term moving average. Defaults to 3.__long_window (int, optional):__Number of periods for the long-term moving average. Defaults to 10.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the Chaikin Oscillator. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Chaikin Oscillator values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the Chaikin Oscillator for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the Chaikin Oscillator using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## collect_momentum_indicators

Calculates and collects various momentum indicators based on the provided data.

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__window (int, optional):__The window size for calculating indicators. Defaults to 14.__close_column (str, optional):__The name of the column containing the close prices. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Momentum indicators calculated based on the specified parameters.

**Notes:**

- The method calculates various momentum indicators for each asset in the Toolkit instance.
- If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_money_flow_index

Calculate the Money Flow Index (MFI) for a given price series.

The Money Flow Index is a momentum indicator that measures the strength and direction of money flowing in and out of a security by considering both price and volume.

The formula is a follows:

- MFI = 100
- (100 / (1 + (positive_money_flow / negative_money_flow)))

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The name of the column containing the close prices. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__The number of periods for calculating the MFI. Defaults to 14.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Money Flow Index (MFI) values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the MFI values for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_williams_percent_r

Calculate the Williams Percent R (Williams %R) for a given price series.

The Williams %R is a momentum indicator that measures the level of the close price relative to the high -low range over a certain number of periods.

The formula is a follows:

- Williams %R = (Highest High - Close) / (Highest High - Lowest Low) * -100

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The name of the column containing the close prices. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__The number of periods for calculating the Williams %R. Defaults to 14.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Williams %R values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the Williams %R values for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_aroon_indicator

Calculate the Aroon Indicator for a given price series.

The Aroon Indicator is an oscillator that measures the strength of a trend and the likelihood of its continuation or reversal.

The formula is a follows:

- Aroon Up = ((Number of periods) - (Number of periods since highest high)) / (Number of periods) * 100

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__window (int, optional):__The number of periods for calculating the Aroon Indicator. Defaults to 14.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
Tuple[pd.Series, pd.Series] or Tuple[pd.DataFrame, pd.DataFrame]:
Aroon Indicator values for the upward and downward trends.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the Aroon Indicator values for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_commodity_channel_index

Calculate the Commodity Channel Index (CCI) for a given price series.

The Commodity Channel Index is an oscillator that measures the current price level relative to an average price level over a specified period.

The formula is a follows:

- CCI = (Typical Price - SMA(Typical Price)) / (constant * Mean Deviation)

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column in the historical data that represents the closing prices. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__The number of periods for calculating the CCI. Defaults to 14.__constant (float, optional):__Constant multiplier used in the CCI calculation. Defaults to 0.015.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Commodity Channel Index (CCI) values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the CCI values for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_relative_vigor_index

Calculate the Relative Vigor Index (RVI) for a given price series.

The Relative Vigor Index is an oscillator that measures the conviction of a current price trend using the relationship between closing and opening prices.

The formula is a follows:

- RVI = SMA(Upward Change) / (SMA(Upward Change) + SMA(Downward Change))

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column in the historical data that represents the closing prices. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__The number of periods for calculating the RVI. Defaults to 14.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Relative Vigor Index (RVI) values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the RVI values for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_force_index

Calculate the Force Index for a given price series.

The Force Index is an indicator that measures the strength behind price movements.

The formula is a follows:

- Force Index = SMA(Periods) * (Close - Close(1))

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column in the historical data that represents the closing prices. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__The number of periods for calculating the Force Index. Defaults to 14.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Force Index values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the Force Index values for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_ultimate_oscillator

Calculate the Ultimate Oscillator for a given price series.

The Ultimate Oscillator is a momentum oscillator that combines short -term, mid -term, and long -term price momentum into a single value.

The formula is a follows:

- Ultimate Oscillator = 100 * ((4 * SMA(Periods)) / (SMA(Periods) + SMA(Periods) + SMA(Periods)))

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column in the historical data that represents the closing prices. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window_1 (int, optional):__The number of periods for the first short-term window. Defaults to 7.__window_2 (int, optional):__The number of periods for the second mid-term window. Defaults to 14.__window_3 (int, optional):__The number of periods for the third long-term window. Defaults to 28.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Ultimate Oscillator values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the Ultimate Oscillator values for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_percentage_price_oscillator

Calculate the Percentage Price Oscillator (PPO) for a given price series.

The Percentage Price Oscillator (PPO) is a momentum oscillator that measures the difference between two moving averages as a percentage of the longer moving average.

The formula is a follows:

- PPO = ((Long -term EMA - Short -term EMA) / Short-term EMA) * 100

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column in the historical data that represents the closing prices. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__short_window (int, optional):__The number of periods for the short-term moving average. Defaults to 7.__long_window (int, optional):__The number of periods for the long-term moving average. Defaults to 28.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Percentage Price Oscillator (PPO) values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the PPO values for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_detrended_price_oscillator

Calculate the Detrended Price Oscillator (DPO) for a given price series.

The Detrended Price Oscillator (DPO) is an indicator that helps identify short -term cycles by removing longer -term trends from prices.

The formula is a follows:

- DPO = Close
- SMA(Close, (Number of Periods / 2) + 1)

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column in the historical data that represents the closing prices. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__The number of periods to consider for the DPO calculation. Defaults to 14.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Detrended Price Oscillator (DPO) values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the DPO values for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_average_directional_index

Calculate the Average Directional Index (ADX) for a given price series.

The Average Directional Index (ADX) is an indicator that measures the strength of a trend, whether it’s an uptrend or a downtrend.

The formula is a follows:

- ADX = SMA(DMI) / (SMA(DMI) + SMA(DMI))

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column in the historical data that represents the closing prices. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__The number of periods to consider for the ADX calculation. Defaults to 14.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.DataFrame or pd.Series: Average Directional Index (ADX) values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the ADX values for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_chande_momentum_oscillator

Calculate the Chande Momentum Oscillator (CMO) for a given price series.

The Chande Momentum Oscillator is an indicator that measures the momentum of a price series and identifies overbought and oversold conditions.

The formula is a follows:

- CMO = ((Sum of Upward Change) - (Sum of Downward Change)) / ((Sum of Upward Change) + (Sum of Downward Change))

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column in the historical data that represents the closing prices. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__The number of periods to consider for the CMO calculation. Defaults to 14.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Chande Momentum Oscillator values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the Chande Momentum Oscillator values for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_ichimoku_cloud

Calculate the Ichimoku Cloud indicator for a given price series.

The Ichimoku Cloud, also known as the Ichimoku Kinko Hyo, is a versatile indicator that defines support and resistance, identifies trend direction, gauges momentum, and provides trading signals.

The formula is a follows:

- Conversion Line = (Highest High + Lowest Low) / 2

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__conversion_window (int, optional):__The number of periods to consider for the Conversion Line (Tenkan-sen) calculation. Defaults to 9.__base_window (int, optional):__The number of periods to consider for the Base Line (Kijun-sen) calculation. Defaults to 20.__lead_span_b_window (int, optional):__The number of periods to shift forward for the Lead Span B calculation. Defaults to 40.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
Tuple[pd.Series, pd.Series, pd.Series, pd.Series] or
Tuple[pd.DataFrame, pd.DataFrame, pd.DataFrame, pd.DataFrame]:
Conversion Line, Base Line, Lead Span A, and Lead Span B values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the Ichimoku Cloud values for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_stochastic_oscillator

Calculate the Stochastic Oscillator indicator for a given price series.

The Stochastic Oscillator is a momentum indicator that shows the location of the close relative to the high -low range over a set number of periods. It consists of the %K line (fast) and the %D line (slow).

The formula is a follows:

- %K = 100 * ((Close - Lowest Low) / (Highest High - Lowest Low))
- %D = SMA(%K)

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column name for closing prices in the historical data. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__The number of periods to consider for the %K line calculation. Defaults to 14.__smooth_widow (int, optional):__The number of periods to consider for the %D line (slow stochastic) calculation. Defaults to 3.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the %K and %D values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
Tuple[pd.Series, pd.Series] or Tuple[pd.DataFrame, pd.DataFrame]:
%K line and %D line values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the Stochastic Oscillator values for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the %K and %D values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_moving_average_convergence_divergence

Calculate the Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) indicator for a given price series.

The Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) is a trend -following momentum indicator that shows the relationship between two moving averages of a security’s price. It consists of the MACD line, signal line, and MACD histogram.

The formula is a follows:

- MACD Line = Short -term EMA - Long -term EMA
- Signal Line = SMA(MACD Line)

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column name for closing prices in the historical data. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__short_window (int, optional):__The number of periods for the shorter moving average. Defaults to 12.__long_window (int, optional):__The number of periods for the longer moving average. Defaults to 26.__signal_window (int, optional):__The number of periods for the signal line. Defaults to 9.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the MACD and signal values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
Tuple[pd.DataFrame, pd.DataFrame] or Tuple[pd.Series, pd.Series]:
MACD line and signal line values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the MACD and signal line values for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the MACD and signal values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_relative_strength_index

Calculate the Relative Strength Index (RSI) indicator for a given price series.

The Relative Strength Index (RSI) is a momentum oscillator that measures the speed and change of price movements. It ranges from 0 to 100 and is used to identify overbought or oversold conditions in an asset’s price.

The formula is a follows:

- RSI = 100 - (100 / (1 + RS))

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column name for closing prices in the historical data. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__The number of periods for RSI calculation. Defaults to 14.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the RSI. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.DataFrame or pd.Series:
Relative Strength Index (RSI) values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the RSI for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the RSI using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_balance_of_power

Calculate the Balance of Power (BOP) indicator for a given price series.

The Balance of Power (BOP) indicator measures the strength of buyers versus sellers in the market. It relates the price change to the change in the asset’s trading range.

The formula is a follows:

- BOP = (Close - Open) / (High - Low)

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column name for closing prices in the historical data. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the BOP. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.DataFrame or pd.Series:
Balance of Power (BOP) values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the BOP for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the BOP using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## collect_overlap_indicators

Calculates and collects various overlap -based indicators based on the provided data.

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__window (int, optional):__The window size for calculating indicators. Defaults to 14.__close_column (str, optional):__The name of the column containing the close prices. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Overlap-based indicators calculated based on the specified parameters.

**Notes:**

- The method calculates several overlap-based indicators for each asset in the Toolkit instance.
- If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_moving_average

Calculate the Moving Average (MA) for a given price series.

The Moving Average (MA) is a commonly used technical indicator that smooths out price data by calculating the average price over a specified number of periods.

The formula is a follows:

- MA = (Sum of Prices) / (Number of Prices)

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column name for closing prices in the historical data. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__Number of periods to consider for the moving average. The number of periods (time intervals) over which to calculate the MA.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the MA. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.DataFrame or pd.Series:
Moving Average (MA) values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the MA for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the MA using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_exponential_moving_average

Calculate the Exponential Moving Average (EMA) for a given price series.

EMA is a technical indicator that gives more weight to recent price data, providing a smoothed moving average that reacts faster to price changes.

The formula is a follows:

- EMA = (Close - Previous EMA) * (2 / (1 + Window)) + Previous EMA

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column name for closing prices in the historical data. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__Number of periods for EMA calculation. The number of periods (time intervals) over which to calculate the EMA.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the EMA. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.DataFrame or pd.Series:
Exponential Moving Average (EMA) values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the EMA for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the EMA using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_double_exponential_moving_average

Calculate the Double Exponential Moving Average (DEMA) for a given price series.

DEMA is a technical indicator that attempts to reduce the lag from traditional moving averages by using a combination of two exponential moving averages.

The formula is a follows:

- EMA = (Close - Previous EMA) * (2 / (1 + Window)) + Previous EMA

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column name for closing prices in the historical data. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__Number of periods for moving average calculation. The number of periods (time intervals) over which to calculate the moving average.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the DEMA. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.DataFrame or pd.Series:
Double Exponential Moving Average (DEMA) values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the DEMA for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the DEMA using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_trix

Calculate the Trix (Triple Exponential Moving Average) for a given price series.

Trix is a momentum oscillator that calculates the percentage rate of change of a triple exponentially smoothed moving average. It helps identify overbought and oversold conditions in a market.

The formula is a follows:

- EMA1 = EMA(Close, Window)
- EMA2 = EMA(EMA1, Window)
- EMA3 = EMA(EMA2, Window)
- TRIX = 100 * ((EMA3 - EMA3[-1]) / EMA3[-1])

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column name for closing prices in the historical data. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__Number of periods for moving average calculation. The number of periods (time intervals) over which to calculate the moving average.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the Trix. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.DataFrame or pd.Series:
Trix values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the Trix for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the Trix using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_bollinger_bands

Calculate the Bollinger Bands for a given price series.

Bollinger Bands are a volatility indicator that consists of three lines: an upper band, a middle band (simple moving average), and a lower band. The upper and lower bands are calculated as the moving average plus and minus a specified number of standard deviations, respectively.

The formula is a follows:

- Middle Band = SMA(Close, Window)
- Upper Band = Middle Band + (Num Std Dev * Std Dev)
- Lower Band = Middle Band - (Num Std Dev * Std Dev)

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column name for closing prices in the historical data. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__Number of periods for moving average calculation. The number of periods (time intervals) over which to calculate the moving average.__num_std_dev (int, optional):__Number of standard deviations for the bands. Defaults to 2.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the bands. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
Tuple[pd.DataFrame, pd.DataFrame, pd.DataFrame] or Tuple[pd.Series, pd.Series, pd.Series]:
Bollinger Bands (upper, middle, lower).

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the Bollinger Bands for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the Bollinger Bands using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_triangular_moving_average

Calculate the Triangular Moving Average (TMA) for a given price series.

The Triangular Moving Average (TMA) is a smoothed version of the Simple Moving Average (SMA) that uses multiple SMAs to reduce noise and provide a smoother trendline.

The formula is a follows:

- TMA = SMA(SMA(Close, Window), Window)

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column name for closing prices in the historical data. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__Number of periods for TMA calculation. The number of periods (time intervals) over which to calculate the TMA.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the TMA. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Triangular Moving Average values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the Triangular Moving Average for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the Triangular Moving Average using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_support_resistance_levels

Retrieves the support and resistance levels for the specified period and assets.

The Support and Resistance Levels are price levels where the price tends to stop and reverse.

- Support Levels: These are the valleys where the price tends to stop going down and may start to go up. Think of support levels as “floors” that the price has trouble falling below.
- Resistance Levels: These are the peaks where the price tends to stop going up and may start to go down. Think of resistance levels as “ceilings” that the price has trouble breaking through.

It does so by:

- Looking for Peaks and Valleys: The function looks at the stock prices and finds the high points (peaks) and low points (valleys) over time.
- Grouping Similar Peaks and Valleys: Sometimes, prices will stop at similar points multiple times. The function groups these similar peaks and valleys together to identify key resistance and support levels.

**Args:**

__sensitivity (float, optional):__The sensitivity parameter to determine the significance of the peaks and valleys. A higher sensitivity value will result in fewer support and resistance levels being identified. Defaults to 0.05.__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column name for closing prices in the historical data. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__Number of periods for calculating support and resistance levels. The number of periods (time intervals) over which to calculate the support and resistance levels. Defaults to 14.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. If None, the rounding value specified during the initialization of the Toolkit instance will be used. Defaults to None.

**Returns:**
pd.DataFrame: The support and resistance levels for each asset.

**Raises:**
ValueError: If the specified `period`

is not one of the valid options.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the support and resistance levels for each asset in the Toolkit instance.

As an example:

## collect_volatility_indicators

Calculates and collects various volatility indicators based on the provided data.

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__window (int, optional):__The window size for calculating indicators. Defaults to 14.__close_column (str, optional):__The name of the column containing the close prices. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the indicator values. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: Volatility indicators calculated based on the specified parameters.

**Notes:**

- The method calculates several volatility-based indicators for each asset in the Toolkit instance.
- If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the indicator values using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_true_range

Calculate the True Range (TR) for a given price series.

The True Range (TR) is a measure of market volatility that considers the differences between the high and low prices and the previous closing price. It provides insights into the price movement of an asset.

The formula is a follows:

- TR = max(high - low, abs(high - previous_close), abs(low - previous_close))

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column name for closing prices in the historical data. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the True Range. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.Series or pd.DataFrame: True Range values.

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates the True Range for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the True Range using the specified`lag`

.

As an example:

## get_average_true_range

Calculate the Average True Range (ATR) of a given price series.

The Average True Range (ATR) is a technical indicator that measures the volatility of an asset’s price movements over a specified number of periods. It provides insights into the potential price range of an asset, which can help traders and investors make more informed decisions.

The formula is a follows:

- TR = max(high - low, abs(high - previous_close), abs(low - previous_close))
- ATR = EMA(TR, Window)

**Args:**

__period (str):__Period for which to calculate the ATR.__window (int):__Number of periods for ATR calculation. The number of periods (time intervals) over which to calculate the Average True Range.__rounding (int | None):__Number of decimal places to round the resulting ATR values to. If None, no rounding is performed.__growth (bool):__Flag indicating whether to return the ATR growth rate. If True, the ATR growth rate is calculated.__lag (int | list[int]):__Number of periods to lag the ATR values by. If an integer is provided, all ATR values are lagged by the same number of periods. If a list of integers is provided, each ATR value is lagged by the corresponding number of periods.

**Returns:**
pd.Series: ATR values or ATR growth rate (if growth is True).
A pandas Series containing the calculated Average True Range values or growth rate for each period.

Formula: The Average True Range (ATR) is calculated using the following steps:

- Calculate the True Range (TR) for each period:
- True Range (TR) = max(high - low, abs(high - previous_close), abs(low - previous_close))

- Calculate the Average True Range (ATR) over the specified window:
- ATR = EMA(TR, window), where EMA is the Exponential Moving Average.

**Notes:**

- ATR values are typically used to assess the volatility and potential price movement of an asset.
- A higher ATR value indicates higher volatility, while a lower ATR value suggests lower volatility.

As an example:

## get_keltner_channels

Calculate the Keltner Channels for a given price series.

The Keltner Channels consist of three lines:

- Upper Channel Line = Exponential Moving Average (EMA) of High Prices + ATR * ATR Multiplier
- Middle Channel Line = Exponential Moving Average (EMA) of Closing Prices
- Lower Channel Line = Exponential Moving Average (EMA) of Low Prices
- ATR * ATR Multiplier

The formula is a follows:

- EMA = (Close - Previous EMA) * (2 / (1 + Window)) + Previous EMA
- ATR = EMA(TR, ATR Window)
- Upper Channel Line = EMA(High, Window) + ATR * ATR Multiplier
- Middle Channel Line = EMA(Close, Window)
- Lower Channel Line = EMA(Low, Window) - ATR * ATR Multiplier

**Args:**

__period (str, optional):__The time period to consider for historical data. Can be “daily”, “weekly”, “quarterly”, or “yearly”. Defaults to “daily”.__close_column (str, optional):__The column name for closing prices in the historical data. Defaults to “Adj Close”.__window (int, optional):__Number of periods for the moving average. Defaults to 14.__atr_window (int, optional):__Number of periods for ATR calculation. Defaults to 14.__atr_multiplier (int, optional):__Multiplier for ATR to determine channel width. Defaults to 2.__rounding (int | None, optional):__The number of decimals to round the results to. Defaults to 4.__growth (bool, optional):__Whether to calculate the growth of the channels. Defaults to False.__lag (int | list[int], optional):__The lag to use for the growth calculation. Defaults to 1.

**Returns:**
pd.DataFrame or Tuple[pd.DataFrame, pd.DataFrame, pd.DataFrame]: Keltner Channels (upper, middle, lower).

**Notes:**

- The method retrieves historical data based on the specified
`period`

and calculates Keltner Channels for each asset in the Toolkit instance. - If
`growth`

is set to True, the method calculates the growth of the channels using the specified`lag`

.

As an example: